Getting started

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Installing kubeadm

This page shows how to install the kubeadm toolbox. For information how to create a cluster with kubeadm once you have performed this installation process, see the Using kubeadm to Create a Cluster page.

Before you begin

  • One or more machines running one of:
    • Ubuntu 16.04+
    • Debian 9+
    • CentOS 7
    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 7
    • Fedora 25+
    • HypriotOS v1.0.1+
    • Container Linux (tested with 1800.6.0)
  • 2 GB or more of RAM per machine (any less will leave little room for your apps)
  • 2 CPUs or more
  • Full network connectivity between all machines in the cluster (public or private network is fine)
  • Unique hostname, MAC address, and product_uuid for every node. See here for more details.
  • Certain ports are open on your machines. See here for more details.
  • Swap disabled. You MUST disable swap in order for the kubelet to work properly.

Verify the MAC address and product_uuid are unique for every node

  • You can get the MAC address of the network interfaces using the command ip link or ifconfig -a
  • The product_uuid can be checked by using the command sudo cat /sys/class/dmi/id/product_uuid

It is very likely that hardware devices will have unique addresses, although some virtual machines may have identical values. Kubernetes uses these values to uniquely identify the nodes in the cluster. If these values are not unique to each node, the installation process may fail.

Check network adapters

If you have more than one network adapter, and your Kubernetes components are not reachable on the default route, we recommend you add IP route(s) so Kubernetes cluster addresses go via the appropriate adapter.

Letting iptables see bridged traffic

As a requirement for your Linux Node’s iptables to correctly see bridged traffic, you should ensure net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables is set to 1 in your sysctl config, e.g.

cat <<EOF > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
sysctl --system

Make sure that the br_netfilter module is loaded before this step. This can be done by running lsmod | grep br_netfilter. To load it explicitly call modprobe br_netfilter.

For more details please see the Network Plugin Requirements page.

Ensure iptables tooling does not use the nftables backend

In Linux, nftables is available as a modern replacement for the kernel’s iptables subsystem. The iptables tooling can act as a compatibility layer, behaving like iptables but actually configuring nftables. This nftables backend is not compatible with the current kubeadm packages: it causes duplicated firewall rules and breaks kube-proxy.

If your system’s iptables tooling uses the nftables backend, you will need to switch the iptables tooling to ‘legacy’ mode to avoid these problems. This is the case on at least Debian 10 (Buster), Ubuntu 19.04, Fedora 29 and newer releases of these distributions by default. RHEL 8 does not support switching to legacy mode, and is therefore incompatible with current kubeadm packages.

# ensure legacy binaries are installed
sudo apt-get install -y iptables arptables ebtables

# switch to legacy versions
sudo update-alternatives --set iptables /usr/sbin/iptables-legacy
sudo update-alternatives --set ip6tables /usr/sbin/ip6tables-legacy
sudo update-alternatives --set arptables /usr/sbin/arptables-legacy
sudo update-alternatives --set ebtables /usr/sbin/ebtables-legacy

update-alternatives --set iptables /usr/sbin/iptables-legacy

Check required ports

Control-plane node(s)

ProtocolDirectionPort RangePurposeUsed By
TCPInbound6443*Kubernetes API serverAll
TCPInbound2379-2380etcd server client APIkube-apiserver, etcd
TCPInbound10250Kubelet APISelf, Control plane

Worker node(s)

ProtocolDirectionPort RangePurposeUsed By
TCPInbound10250Kubelet APISelf, Control plane
TCPInbound30000-32767NodePort Services†All

† Default port range for NodePort Services.

Any port numbers marked with * are overridable, so you will need to ensure any custom ports you provide are also open.

Although etcd ports are included in control-plane nodes, you can also host your own etcd cluster externally or on custom ports.

The pod network plugin you use (see below) may also require certain ports to be open. Since this differs with each pod network plugin, please see the documentation for the plugins about what port(s) those need.

Installing runtime

To run containers in Pods, Kubernetes uses a container runtimeThe container runtime is the software that is responsible for running containers. .

By default, Kubernetes uses the Container Runtime InterfaceAn API for container runtimes to integrate with kubelet (CRI) to interface with your chosen container runtime.

If you don’t specify a runtime, kubeadm automatically tries to detect an installed container runtime by scanning through a list of well known Unix domain sockets. The following table lists container runtimes and their associated socket paths:

Container runtimes and their socket paths
RuntimePath to Unix domain socket

If both Docker and containerd are detected, Docker takes precedence. This is needed because Docker 18.09 ships with containerd and both are detectable even if you only installed Docker. If any other two or more runtimes are detected, kubeadm exits with an error.

The kubelet integrates with Docker through the built-in dockershim CRI implementation.

See container runtimes for more information.

By default, kubeadm uses DockerDocker is a software technology providing operating-system-level virtualization also known as containers. as the container runtime. The kubelet integrates with Docker through the built-in dockershim CRI implementation.

See container runtimes for more information.

Installing kubeadm, kubelet and kubectl

You will install these packages on all of your machines:

  • kubeadm: the command to bootstrap the cluster.

  • kubelet: the component that runs on all of the machines in your cluster and does things like starting pods and containers.

  • kubectl: the command line util to talk to your cluster.

kubeadm will not install or manage kubelet or kubectl for you, so you will need to ensure they match the version of the Kubernetes control plane you want kubeadm to install for you. If you do not, there is a risk of a version skew occurring that can lead to unexpected, buggy behaviour. However, one minor version skew between the kubelet and the control plane is supported, but the kubelet version may never exceed the API server version. For example, kubelets running 1.7.0 should be fully compatible with a 1.8.0 API server, but not vice versa.

For information about installing kubectl, see Install and set up kubectl.

Warning: These instructions exclude all Kubernetes packages from any system upgrades. This is because kubeadm and Kubernetes require special attention to upgrade.

For more information on version skews, see:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install -y apt-transport-https curl
curl -s | sudo apt-key add -
cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/kubernetes.list
deb kubernetes-xenial main
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl
sudo apt-mark hold kubelet kubeadm kubectl

cat <<EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo

# Set SELinux in permissive mode (effectively disabling it)
setenforce 0
sed -i 's/^SELINUX=enforcing$/SELINUX=permissive/' /etc/selinux/config

yum install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl --disableexcludes=kubernetes

systemctl enable --now kubelet


  • Setting SELinux in permissive mode by running setenforce 0 and sed ... effectively disables it. This is required to allow containers to access the host filesystem, which is needed by pod networks for example. You have to do this until SELinux support is improved in the kubelet.

Install CNI plugins (required for most pod network):

mkdir -p /opt/cni/bin
curl -L "${CNI_VERSION}/cni-plugins-linux-amd64-${CNI_VERSION}.tgz" | tar -C /opt/cni/bin -xz

Install crictl (required for kubeadm / Kubelet Container Runtime Interface (CRI))

mkdir -p /opt/bin
curl -L "${CRICTL_VERSION}/crictl-${CRICTL_VERSION}-linux-amd64.tar.gz" | tar -C /opt/bin -xz

Install kubeadm, kubelet, kubectl and add a kubelet systemd service:

RELEASE="$(curl -sSL"

mkdir -p /opt/bin
cd /opt/bin
curl -L --remote-name-all${RELEASE}/bin/linux/amd64/{kubeadm,kubelet,kubectl}
chmod +x {kubeadm,kubelet,kubectl}

curl -sSL "${RELEASE}/build/debs/kubelet.service" | sed "s:/usr/bin:/opt/bin:g" > /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service
mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d
curl -sSL "${RELEASE}/build/debs/10-kubeadm.conf" | sed "s:/usr/bin:/opt/bin:g" > /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d/10-kubeadm.conf

Enable and start kubelet:

systemctl enable --now kubelet

The kubelet is now restarting every few seconds, as it waits in a crashloop for kubeadm to tell it what to do.

Configure cgroup driver used by kubelet on control-plane node

When using Docker, kubeadm will automatically detect the cgroup driver for the kubelet and set it in the /var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env file during runtime.

If you are using a different CRI, you have to modify the file /etc/default/kubelet (/etc/sysconfig/kubelet for CentOS, RHEL, Fedora) with your cgroup-driver value, like so:


This file will be used by kubeadm init and kubeadm join to source extra user defined arguments for the kubelet.

Please mind, that you only have to do that if the cgroup driver of your CRI is not cgroupfs, because that is the default value in the kubelet already.

Restarting the kubelet is required:

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart kubelet

The automatic detection of cgroup driver for other container runtimes like CRI-O and containerd is work in progress.


If you are running into difficulties with kubeadm, please consult our troubleshooting docs.

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